Plantar Fasciitis is a foot injury caused by a stretch or a rupture of the Plantar fascia, a fibrous membrane that goes from the bone of the heel to the base of the toes. This membrane is, the “floor” of the foot. About 1% of the population is effected.
This condition is mainly manifested as heel pain. Athletes are most often affected, as they use more frequently and intensely all the structures of their feet.
When such a problem is diagnosed, it is important to reduce physical activity and to have adequate care not to inflame the planatr fascia even more. Otherwise, Fasciitis is likely to worsen. People who suffered once retain a fragility and increased risk of getting it again.
Note. This condition also bears the name of Fasciitis Plantar.
Either of the following situations may be the cause.
The practice of sports without proper preparation (warm ups) of the muscles and tendons, or adequate equipment. Running or jogging, jumping, team sports (volleyball, etc.), ski, tennis, aerobics and workout on a stair climber are part of physical activity most at risk;
Obesity. It is a Plantar Fasciitis important risk factor, particularly because the excess weight often increased tension in the muscle chain in the back of the legs. These tensions are reflected on the feet;
Wearing shoes that support poorly the Arch of the foot and the heel, resulting in a biomechanical imbalance. This is particularly the case of shoes whose soles or heels are too hard, as well as those including the foothills too soft not sufficiently stabilize heels;
Hollow feet or flat feet;
Walking or standing on hard surfaces.
Moreover, we know that the normal aging of the Plantar fascia makes it more susceptible to tears. Indeed, the fascia lose their flexibility with age.
From the physiological point of view, Plantar Fasciitis is the reflection of an inflammation of the Plantar fascia (the suffix ite means inflammation). This fascia covers and protects tendons and other deep structures of the foot. It helps maintain the Arch of the foot. Inflammation appears as a result of abrasion of the fascia. Is it too much or poorly applied, of microtears or more lesions may appear.
Since the foot is constantly under pressure from standing and walking, the pain may persist if nothing is done to correct the situation.
Over time, a heel spur may appear. About half of people who suffer from Plantar Fasciitis have heel spurs as well. It is a small bone spur that forms where the Plantar fascia joins the bone of the heel (calcaneus). This outgrowth formed because the bones must be organized to better withstand the tendon that “pulls” more. The outgrowth to support this increased tension. It is also called heel spur or calcaneal Exostosis.
In very rare cases, the calcium heel spur forms a bony outgrowth big enough to be felt under the skin. The heel spur itself causes no pain but the inflammation caused by plantar fasciitis to the plantar fascia.